Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Microservice Architectures with Kubernetes and PaaS

Microservice Architectures with Kubernetes and PaaS

I am going to take a somewhat tangential approach to the subject. You see, most discussions about the Microservices architecture are centered around technological aspects: which language to choose, how to create the most RESTful services, which service mesh is more appropriate, etc.

However at VSHN we have long ago figured out that the most important factor of success for software projects is people. And the thesis of my talk today is that the choice of Microservices as an architectural pattern has more to do with the organizational structure of your organization, rather than the technological constraints and features of the final deliverable.

Blog post: https://www.vshn.ch/en/blog/microservices-or-not-your-team-has-already-decided/

Adrian Kosmaczewski

November 04, 2021
Tweet

More Decks by Adrian Kosmaczewski

Other Decks in Technology

Transcript

  1. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Adrian Kosmaczewski, Developer Relations
    Microservice
    Architectures with
    Kubernetes and PaaS
    Thank you so much for this opportunity to talk about
    Microservice architectures today. My name is Adrian
    Kosmaczewski, and I’m in charge of Developer
    Relations at VSHN.
    Speaker notes
    1

    View full-size slide

  2. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Pronounced ˈvɪʒn – like "vision"
    The DevOps Company
    Switzerland’s leading DevOps, Docker & Kubernetes partner
    Founded 2014, 46 VSHNeers located in Zürich
    24/7 support
    ISO 27001 certi ed & ISAE 3402 Report Type 1 veri ed
    First Swiss Kubernetes Certi ed Service Provider
    Just a few words about VSHN; that’s how you
    pronounce the name, and we’re "The DevOps
    Company". We’ve been in Zurich since 2014, we’re 46
    VSHNeers and we’re Switzerland’s leading DevOps,
    Docker & Kubernetes partner, offering 24/7 support to
    our customers. We’ve got a few certifications, and most
    importantly, we were the First Swiss Kubernetes
    Certified Service Provider back in 2016.
    Speaker notes
    2

    View full-size slide

  3. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    We’re partners with many companies very active in the
    Cloud Native space, you might recognize some of the
    logos on this slide.
    Speaker notes
    3

    View full-size slide

  4. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    We also run our own "Platform as a Service" offering
    called "APPUiO". We’ve created our own suite of tools
    to manage lots of Kubernetes services from a central
    location, called "Project Syn". Last but not least, we
    have developed our own Kubernetes operator for
    backups, called K8up, which just like Project Syn is
    100% open source on GitHub.
    Speaker notes
    4

    View full-size slide

  5. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Microservice Architectures
    Thank you so much for this opportunity to talk about
    Microservice architectures today.
    Speaker notes
    5

    View full-size slide

  6. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    I am going to take a somewhat tangential approach to
    the subject. You see, most discussions about the
    Microservices architecture are centered around
    technological aspects: which language to choose, how
    to create the most RESTful services, which service
    mesh is more appropriate, etc.
    Photo by utm_source=unsplash&utm_medium=referral&utm_conten
    Speaker notes
    6

    View full-size slide

  7. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    However at VSHN we have long ago figured out that the
    most important factor of success for software projects
    is people. And the thesis of my talk today is that the
    choice of Microservices as an architectural pattern has
    more to do with the organizational structure of your
    organization, rather than the technological constraints
    and features of the final deliverable.
    Photo by utm_source=unsplash&utm_medium=referral&utm_conten
    Speaker notes
    7

    View full-size slide

  8. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    De nition
    First of all we must define the Microservices
    architecture. What is it?
    Speaker notes
    8

    View full-size slide

  9. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    "Microservices" is an architectural pattern in which the
    functionality of the whole system is decomposed into
    completely independent components, communicating
    with each other over the network.
    Speaker notes
    9

    View full-size slide

  10. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    The counterpart of the Microservices architecture is
    what is commonly referred to as the "Monolith", which
    has been the most common approach for web
    applications and services in the past 25 years. In a
    Monolith, all functions of the application, from data
    management to the UI are contained in the same
    binary.
    Speaker notes
    10

    View full-size slide

  11. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Own implementation & data
    Single purpose
    Strong cohesion
    "Share nothing" architecture
    Small, lightweight, and fast
    Microservices Features
    In a Microservices architecture, each service is
    responsible of its own implementation and data
    storage.
    Microservices are fine grained, and have a single
    purpose. They have strong cohesion, that is, the
    operations they encapsulate have a high degree of
    relatedness. They are an example of the "Single
    Responsibility Principle". They are also deployed
    separately, with visibly bounded contexts, and they
    require DevOps approaches to their deployment and
    management, such as automation and CI/CD pipelines.
    Very importantly, the Microservices architecture is a
    "share nothing architecture", in which individual
    services never share common code through libraries,
    instead restricting all interaction and communication
    through the network connecting them.
    And last but not least, Microservices (as the name
    implies) should be as small as possible, have low
    requirements of memory, and should be able to start
    and stop in seconds.
    Speaker notes
    11

    View full-size slide

  12. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Given all of these characteristics, Microservices are, by
    far, the most complex architectural pattern ever
    created. It is difficult to plan, it can dramatically
    increase the complexity of projects, and for some
    teams, experience has shown that it was impossible to
    cope with.
    Photo by utm_source=unsplash&utm_medium=referral&utm_conten
    Speaker notes
    12

    View full-size slide

  13. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    This idea of "components sending messages to one
    another" is absolutely not new. Back in 1966, one of
    the greatest computer scientists of all time, Alan Kay,
    coined the term "Object Oriented Programming". The
    industry coopted and deformed his original definition,
    which was the following:
    Speaker notes
    13

    View full-size slide

  14. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Source:
    OOP to me means only messaging, local
    retention and protection and hiding of state-
    process, and extreme late-binding of all things.
    www.purl.org/stefan_ram/pub/doc_kay_oop_en
    Alan Kay designed in the 1970s the Smalltalk
    programming language, based on these concepts. And
    after reading the texts above, it becomes clear that to a
    large extent, the Microservices architecture is an
    implementation of Alan Kay’s ideas of messaging,
    decoupling and abstraction, taken to the extreme.
    Speaker notes
    14

    View full-size slide

  15. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    REST
    To achieve the current state of Microservices, though,
    many other breakthroughs were required. During the
    2000s, the emergence of XML, the SOAP protocol, and
    its related web services made the term "Service
    Oriented Architecture" a very common staple in
    architectural discussions. The rise of Agile
    methodologies made the industry pivot towards the
    REST approach instead of SOAP. During the last
    decade, the rise of DevOps and the rise of
    containerization through Docker and Kubernetes finally
    enabled teams to deploy thousands of containers as a
    microservice architecture, thanks to the whole catalog
    of Cloud Native technologies.
    Speaker notes
    15

    View full-size slide

  16. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Parallel development
    Best tool for each service
    More ef cient system
    High availability
    Progressive update
    Pros
    If Microservice architectures are so complex, why use
    them? It turns out, they can bring many benefits:
    Since each component can be completely isolated
    from the others, once teams agree on their interfaces
    they can be developed, documented, and tested
    thoroughly, 100% independently from others. This
    allows teams to move forward in parallel,
    implementing features that have 0% chance of
    collision with one another.
    Teams are also encouraged to choose the
    programming language that fits best the particular
    task that their microservice must fulfill.
    Since they are by definition "micro" services, they are
    designed to be quickly launched and dismissed, so
    that they only intervene when required, making the
    whole system more efficient and responsive.
    The size of microservices also allows for higher
    availability, since it is possible to have many of them
    behind a load balancer; should any instance of a
    microservice fail, it can be quickly dismissed and a
    new one instantiated in its place, without loss of
    availability.
    Systems can be updated progressively, with each
    team fixing bugs and adding functionality without
    disturbing the others. As long as interfaces are
    respected (and eventually versioned) there is no
    reason for the system to suffer from updates.
    Speaker notes
    16

    View full-size slide

  17. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Performance
    Required experience
    Cost
    Feasibility
    Team structure
    Complexity
    Cons
    But there are many reasons not to choose the
    Microservices architectural approach; among the most
    important:
    Performance: a system built with Microservices must
    take into account the latency between those
    services; and in this respect, Monolithic applications
    are faster; a function call is always faster than a
    network call.
    Team maturity: Microservices demand a certain
    degree of experience and expertise from teams;
    those new to Microservices have a higher chance of
    project failures.
    Cost: creating a Microservices system will be costlier,
    if anything, because of the overhead created by each
    individual service.
    Feasibility: sometimes it is simply not possible to use
    Microservices, for example when dealing with legacy
    systems.
    Team structure: this is a decisive factor we will talk
    about extensively later.
    Complexity: it is not uncommon to end up with
    systems composed of thousands of concurrent
    services, and this creates challenges that we will
    also discuss later.
    I would like to talk now about the last two points, which
    are in our experience the biggest issues in Microservice
    implementations: team structure and management of
    complexity.
    Speaker notes
    17

    View full-size slide

  18. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    1. Conway’s Law
    One of the decisive factors that constrain teams' ability
    to implement microservices is often invisible and
    overlooked: their own structure. Again, this
    phenomenon is not new.
    Speaker notes
    18

    View full-size slide

  19. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    In 1968, Melvin A. Conway wrote an article for the
    Datamation magazine called "How Do Committees
    Invent?" in which the following idea stands out:
    Speaker notes
    19

    View full-size slide

  20. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Source:
    The basic thesis of this article is that
    organizations which design systems (…) are
    constrained to produce designs which are
    copies of the communication structures of
    these organizations.
    www.melconway.com/Home/Committees_Paper.html
    There is extensive evidence of this fact through
    research; the industry agrees that this is indeed the
    case.
    In that situation, I do not need to point out that the
    choice of a Monolithic versus a Microservices
    architecture is already ingrained in the very hierarchical
    chart representing the organization.
    Speaker notes
    20

    View full-size slide

  21. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    One of the services we offer at VSHN tackles, precisely,
    this very issue. In our "DevOps workshop" we evaluate
    the degree of "agility" of organizations. Based on that
    information, we reverse engineer their structure through
    Conway’s Law in order to find a starting point for their
    digital transformation.
    Speaker notes
    21

    View full-size slide

  22. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    2. Complex vs. Complicated
    Another point that I want to make today is the
    distinction of "Complex" versus "Complicated", as
    these two words can sometimes be confused with one
    another in everyday language, and the word "Simple"
    can be used as an antonym of both.
    Speaker notes
    22

    View full-size slide

  23. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Complex
    complexus
    plectere ⇒ to intertwine
    Complicated
    complicare
    plicare ⇒ to fold
    "Complex" is borrowed from the Latin complexus,
    meaning "made of intertwined elements". "Complexus"
    is itself derived from plectere ("bend, intertwine"). This
    word has been used since the XVI century to qualify
    that which is made of heterogenous elements. It shares
    the same root (plectere) with the medical term "plexus"
    meaning "interlacing" and used since the 16th century
    as a medical term for "network of nerves or blood
    vessels".
    (Source: Dictionnaire historique de la langue française
    by Alan Rey)
    On the other hand, "Complicated" has a similar origin
    but a different construction: it comes from the Latin
    complicare, literally meaning "to fold by rolling up".
    Figuratively speaking this was taken as close to the
    notion of embarrassment or awkwardness. The word is
    composed of the word plicare which means "to fold".
    Watches commonly known as "Complications" (such as
    the Patek Philippe Calibre 89, the Franck Muller
    Aeternitas Mega and the "Référence 57260" de
    Vacheron Constantin) are… complicated machines by
    definition.
    In short, "Complex" and "Complicated" stem from
    slightly different roots: the Latin root plectere ("to
    intertwine") in the former, and plicare ("to fold") for the
    latter. Complex conveys the idea of a network of
    intertwined objects, whose state and behavior are
    continuously altered by the interaction with their peers
    in said network. The word complicated implies an
    intrinsic apparent "obscurity" through folding unto itself,
    inviting to an "unfolding" discovery process.
    Speaker notes
    23

    View full-size slide

  24. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Complex
    Microservices architecture
    Complicated
    Monoliths
    Or, put in another way: individual Microservices should
    not be complicated, but a Microservice architecture is
    complex by definition. Monoliths, on the other hand,
    tend to become very complicated as time passes.
    Neither are simple.
    Software developers have a strong relationship with
    complication; complicated systems are great to brag
    about on Hacker News, but maintainers also cry about
    them in private.
    Speaker notes
    24

    View full-size slide

  25. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Complicated ⇒ Complex
    Best Practices
    A "best practice" has one and only one basic job: to
    help engineers translate the complicated into the
    complex. Most software-related disasters are caused by
    a simple fact: because of deadlines, organization,
    tooling, or just plain ignorance, software developers
    have a tendency to build complicated, instead of
    complex, systems.
    This is another point we take care of in our DevOps
    Workshop, through the evaluation of the current assets
    (source code, current databases, security and network
    requirements, deployment procedures and rhythms,
    etc.)
    Speaker notes
    25

    View full-size slide

  26. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Migrate or Rewrite?
    The complication of Monoliths by itself is not
    problematic; it makes for tightly bound systems, which
    tend to be very fast, because as we said, a function call
    is faster than a network call. After all, we have been
    building very successful monoliths in the past. But they
    tend to have problems with availability and scalability.
    Microservices represent a diametrally oposed approach,
    based on complexity rather than complication, but one
    that solves those issues.
    Speaker notes
    26

    View full-size slide

  27. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    There is a tension, then, between complexity and
    complication on one side, and organizational forces on
    the other. Put in other words, there is a tension
    between monolithic and microservices systems on one
    side, and more or less hierarchical structures on the
    other. Achieving equilibrium between these forces is,
    then, the engineering challenge faced by software
    architects these days.
    Photo by href="https://unsplash.com/@mattiabericchia?
    utm_source=unsplash&utm_medium=referral&utm_conten
    Bericchia on href="https://unsplash.com/s/photos/equilibrium?
    utm_source=unsplash&utm_medium=referral&utm_conten
    Speaker notes
    27

    View full-size slide

  28. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    7 Tips
    Many teams face today the task, either requested
    internally (from their management) or externally (through
    customer demand or vendor requirements) of migrating
    their monoliths into Microservice-based architectures.
    Architects can thankfully apply a few techniques to find
    an equilibrium.
    Speaker notes
    28

    View full-size slide

  29. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    1. No need to migrate all
    2. Identify components correctly
    3. Network bandwidth is not in nite!
    4. Reduce inter-service communication
    5. Testing strategy
    6. Standardize around containers
    7. Automate all the things!
    1. Start your migration path knowing that very often one
    does not need to migrate the whole application to
    Microservices. Some parts can and should remain
    monolithic, and in particular, proven older systems,
    even if written in COBOL or older technologies, can
    still deliver value, and can play a very important role
    in the success of the transition.
    2. Identify components correctly, so that when isolated
    they will be neither only functionality-driven, nor only
    data-driven, nor only request-driven, but rather driven
    by these three factors (functionality, data, and
    request) at the same time. Pay attention to the
    organizational chart, and use that as a basis for the
    decomposition in microservices.
    3. Remember that network bandwidth is not infinite.
    Some interfaces should be "chunky", while others
    should be "chatty". Plan for latency issues from the
    start.
    4. Reduce inter-service communication as much as
    possible, which can be done in many ways:
    1. Consolidating services together
    2. Consolidating data domains (combining
    database schemas or using common caches)
    3. Using technologies such as GraphQL to reduce
    network bandwidth
    4. Using messaging queues, such as RabbitMQ.
    5. Adopt Microservice-friendly technologies, such as
    Docker containers, Kubernetes, Knative, or Red Hat’s
    OpenShift and Quarkus.
    Speaker notes
    29

    View full-size slide

  30. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    As mentioned previously, we regularly help
    organizations in their digital transformation towards
    microservices, Kubernetes, OpenShift, DevOps, CI/CD,
    GitLab, and DevOps in general, to support your teams
    with the tooling they will need in the future. Borrowing
    Henny Portman’s Team Topologies concept, VSHN can
    support both as an "Enabling Team" (DevOps
    workshop, consulting) and a "Platform Team"
    (Kubernetes/Openshift) to build microservices on,
    ensuring stability and peace of mind.
    Speaker notes
    30

    View full-size slide

  31. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Conclusion
    Microservices:
    Great bene ts, but huge challenges
    Reverse-engineer Conway’s Law
    Complex is better than complicated.
    Going beyond the hype, Microservice architectures bring
    great benefits, but can become huge challenges to
    software teams.
    The best way to tackle those challenges consists in
    reverse engineering Conway’s Law, and start by the
    analysis of the human organization of your teams first.
    Make them independent, agile, and free to choose the
    best tools for their job. Encourage them to negotiate
    with one another the interfaces of their respective
    components.
    Let us create and run complex, not complicated,
    systems. We cannot get away from complexity; that is
    our job as engineers. But we can drop the complicated
    bit.
    Speaker notes
    31

    View full-size slide

  32. VSHN – The DevOps Company
     Embed structure in your activities,
    and remove it from your hierarchy.
    All of this means that, in order to achieve success with
    the Microservice architecture, you must embed
    structure in your activities, and remove it from your
    hierarchy. It is not about making the structure go away;
    but just moving it to where it does the most good.
    Speaker notes
    32

    View full-size slide

  33. VSHN – The DevOps Company
    Adrian Kosmaczewski, Developer Relations –
    VSHN AG – Neugasse 10 – CH-8005 Zürich – +41 44 545 53 00 – –
    Thanks!
    [email protected]
    vshn.ch [email protected]
    Thank you for your attention.
    Speaker notes
    33

    View full-size slide