tables. - VLOOKUP: Searches for a value in the first column and returns a value from a specified column. Example: =VLOOKUP(A1, B1:D10, 2, FALSE) finds A1 in the first column of the range B1:D10 and returns the corresponding value from the second column. - HLOOKUP: Similar to VLOOKUP but searches horizontally. Example: =HLOOKUP(A1, A1:D3, 2, FALSE). - INDEX: Returns the value of a cell in a specified row and column. Example: =INDEX(A1:B10, 2, 1) returns the value in row 2, column 1. - MATCH: Returns the relative position of an item in an array. Example: =MATCH('apple', A1:A10, 0) finds the position of 'apple' within A1:A10.