regression model (continuous outcome) • Variance component test • Assume , where F() is an arbitral distribution • Test hypothesis • Score test for where is the estimated , and • Each weight is pre-specified • Ex. , where are shape parameters 8/13 Other covariates Genotype (1×p vec) H0 : 1 = · · · = p = 0 , H0 : ⌧ = 0 j ⇠ F(0, w2 j ⌧) ⌧ = 0 QV C = (Y ˆ µ0)T K(Y ˆ µ0) asym ! Mixture of 2 1 ˆ µ0 E H0 [Y i ] K = GW GT wj p wj = Beta(MAFj; a1, a2) a1, a2 W = diag(w2 1 , . . . , w2 p ) Yi = ↵0 + Xi↵ + Gi + " " ⇠ N(0, 2)