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"harmful as well as useful fungi"

Maleeha Fatima

May 05, 2020

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  1. Aspergillus was named by Italian priest- biologist Pier Antonio Micheli.

    It belongs to the family Aspergillaceae and is genetically close to the genus Penicillium. Aspergillus is large genus of anamorphic fungi. This genus consists of over 340 officially recognized species. Aspergilli have great importance in many fields like plant, animals and human health etc. By MF
  2. 1. Aspergillus clavatus 2. Aspergillus glaucus 3. Aspergillus ornatus 4.

    Aspergillus cervinus 5. Aspergillus restrictus 6. Aspergillus fumigatus 7. Aspergillus ochraceous 8. Aspergillus niger 9. Aspergillus candidus 10. Aspergillus flavus 11. Aspergillus wentii 12. Aspergillus cremeus 13. Aspergillus sparsus 14. Aspergillus versicolor 15. Aspergillus nidulans 16. Aspergillus ustus 17. Aspergillus flavipes 18. Aspergillus terreus Raper & Fennell divided Aspergillus into 18 groups :- By MF
  3. MACROSCOPICALLY  Colony diameter  Conidial colour  Colony reverse

     Exudates MICROSCOPICALLY  Conidiophore  Vesicle  Metula  Phialides  Conidia By MF
  4. Aspergillus fungi can have beneficial as well as detrimental effects

    on humankind and the environment. For example : ❖Aspergillus fumigatus & Aspergillus flavus- cause aspergillosis ❖Aspergillus flavus & Aspergillus parasiticus- contaminate plant-based foods & feeds with mycotoxin aflatoxins ❖Aspergillus niger- produce harmful secondary metabolites e.g ochratoxin A, fumonisin ❖Aspergillus terrus- release secondary metabolites e.g patulin, citrinin, gliotoxin & cause invasive pulmonary aspergillosis BENEFITS V/S HARMS hazards By MF
  5. Different species of Aspergillus are used commercially for the production

    of food related products such as: ❖Aspergillus luchuensis- awamori (beverage) ❖Aspergillus kawachii (white-koji mold)– alcholic beverages, alpha & beta amylases, citric acid production ❖Aspergillus niger- food ingredients, extracellular enzymes, organic acids, humanized antibodies ❖Aspergillus saccharolyticus & Aspergillus brasiliensis- beta-glucosidase, succinic acid, lactic acid ❖Aspergillus flavus- malic acid ❖Aspergillus oryzae (yellow-koji mold)- sake, soy sauce, vinegar, lipase, lactase, protease ❖Aspergillus sojae (koji mold)- soy sauce, kochujang, pectinases, polygalacturonases ❖Aspergillus tamarii- tamari, xylanase, lipase ❖Aspergillus terrus- drugs e.g lovastatin (cholesterol-lowering drug), asperfuranone & cyclosporine A (immuno-suppressant drug) ❖Aspergillus nidulans- endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase ❖Aspergillus fumigatus- cellulase, xylanase benefits By MF
  6. Several Aspergillus species are widely used in biotechnology as cellular

    factories for the production of enzymes, organic acids, pharmaceuticals They have wide applications and extensively used in industrial (A. oryzae, A. niger), medical (A.fumigatus, A. terreus) & agricultural and food (A. flavus, A. parasiticus) fields Some also produce harmful metabolites Many species of Aspergillus are considered as safe organism by World Health Organization (WHO) and listed as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the United States Food and Drug Administration such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae. By MF